Graphic Design or Visual Communication
Understanding of graphic design is needed by a designer to know patterns of thinking andobjectives in the science of Graphic Design or Visual Communication ...

Today, graphic design is believed to be a work of art technology-intensive, has a very comprehensive impact to the community as a target audience. Why? Since its existence is able to inform new product to an audience. He has the charisma to consumers to be invited to buy and use goods and services offered to him. He is also good at stimulating the audience to think about something that had never occurred to her. Thus, when we recognize and cultivate the graphic design, then we seem to be the bearer of glad tidings to all peoples in the form of visual communication that covers all areas of human life, either with a target commercial and social objectives. Therefore, the myth of the graphic design profession and the people who cultivate it is no longer merely clever person "driving" computer graphics with all its programs and expertly create illustrations using RAPIDO, colored pencils, poster paint, and airbrush. However, the more essential, he is a designer, the originator and inventor of the idea first.

Understanding Graphic Design
According to Wikipedia Dictionary of Electronics (
Graphic design is a form of visual communication using images to convey information or messages as effectively as possible. In graphic design, text images are also considered as a result of abstraction of symbols that can be sounded. Graphic design is applied in communication design and fine art. As with other types of design, graphic design can refer to the process of manufacture, design methods, the resulting product (design), or any discipline that is used (the design).

The art of graphic design include cognitive ability and visual skills, including typography, illustration, photography, image processing, and layout.

Media Restrictions
Graphic design was originally applied to static media, such as books, magazines, and brochures. In addition, in line with the times, graphic design is also applied in the electronic media, which is often referred to as interactive design or multimedia design. Boundary dimensions has changed over the development of thinking about design. Graphic design can be implemented into a design environment that includes a processing chamber.

Principles and Elements of Design
Element in graphic design as the basic elements in other design disciplines. These elements (including shape, shape (form), texture, line, space, and color) form the basic principles of visual design. These principles, such as equilibrium (balance), rhythm (rhythm), stress (emphasis), the proportion ("proportion") and unity (unity), then form a structural aspect of a larger composition.

List of Graphic Design Software
There are several software used in graphic design:

Desktop Publishing
  • Adobe Photoshop
  • Adobe Illustrator
  • Adobe Indesign
  • Coreldraw
  • GIMP
  • Inkscape
  • Macromedia Freehand
  • Macromedia Dreamweaver
  • Microsoft Frontpage
  • Notepad
  • Adobe After Effects
  • Adobe Premier
  • Final Cut
  • Adobe Flash, or before Macromedia Flash
Rendering 3 Dimensions
  • 3D StudioMax
  • Maya
  • AutoCad

Hopefully Helpful

Principles of Graphic Design
by Gapra.

In the work of a graphic designer should consider these principles in order to achieve a good end result. Design principles that will be described below is not a value to death that the best design is like what is contained in these principles. But the mere suggestion that this was supposed to be good design. Because there is really no good or bad ratings on a design. It all depends on taste graphic designers, clients and audiences to whom the message. This is confirmed expert graphic design, Danton Sihombing in magazines Discs: assessment of the real graphic design work is to test the feasibility, in the sense that there is no graphic design work is right or wrong. 

Principles of Graphic Design is as follows:

Many graphic design experts suggest this principle in the design work. It is quite logical for the sake of convenience of the reader understand the contents of the message delivered. In the use of a news letter for example. Letters the title (headline), subheads and body message (body text) should not use type fonts and njilimet ornamental, like a blackletter font that is difficult to read. Graphic designers also commonly refer to this as the KISS principle (Keep It Simple Stupid). This principle can be applied with the use of elements of free space (white space) and do not use too many elements of accessories. Only as needed. 

Balance is a state or similarity between the forces facing each other and cause the appearance of balanced visually. The principle of balance there are two, namely: a balance of formal (symmetrical) and informal balance. 

Gives the impression of a perfect balance of formal, official, sturdy, confident and prestigious.Formal balance also touched on consistency in the use of various design elements. Such wana logo. In the design business card design is made with full color (F / C). But with consideration to design more varied and not boring, then in the media of different designs you create a logo with a duotone color. Well, in these conditions, the idea of ​​design variations should not be necessary. What if the logo is the logo of a product item. Consistency is also indispensable as an impression of identity inherent in a product brand. We do not want consumers to remember the product being sold. While the balance of beneficial informal produce a visual impression of a dynamic, free, loose, pop, leaving a rigid attitude, and postmodernists. 

Unity is the cohesion, consistency, unity or wholeness, which is the main content of the composition. An example is illustrative, given the raster lines and text so it gives the impression of unity of the messages in question. 

Emphasis (accent)
The emphasis is intended to draw readers' attention, so he wants to see and read the design in question. If newspaper design in the context of this can be done by giving the raster box up a story. This will impress the importance of news to be read by the reader. Or also raise the size of the letters in the headline, so it looks much different from other news. Emphasis is also done through the loop size, as well as the contrast between the texture, tone color, line, space, shape or motif. 

Rhythm (repetition)
Rhythm is a repetition of the elements supporting the work of art. Cadence is the difference between the two being located in space, similar to the time interval between two successive tones of the same music. Graphic design emphasis on the interval of space or emptiness or the distance between objects. For example antarkolom distance. The distance between the text of the paper, the distances between the 10 pictures on one page and so forth. 

Type And Type Logo
Talking about the logo or identity so it's good we know that there are three important elements in a logo, ie:

1. NAME, relation to the word or sound.
2. SYMBOLS, its connection with visual form
3. COLOR, as well as visual appeal, symbolic meaning, is also associated with psychological effects.

In the early days of development, the division of the logo is not as complicated now. At first the logo only in the form of an unspoken form of such images, made by craftsmen for the royal emblem. 

Along with the development era, the logo is used not only for the sake of the kingdom only, but to give a mark on goods sold in the market (Trademarks). The division of the logo in a more simple type is divided into two parts, namely: 

  1. Word Marks or Brand Name or logotype, the logo is composed of unspoken form (a series of letters that can be read / spoken) 
  2. Device Marks or Brand Mark or Logogram, which is composed of an unspoken form (figure). 

Can also be a logo consisting of the two, which is a combination of brand name and brand mark. 

As an example for the brand name is Garuda Indonesian Airways logotype is composed only of the Sans Serif font types, and the shape of an eagle Logogram as brand marks. 

Then with the increasing number of products on the market, as well as the more complex the characteristics of emerging markets various types of logos, which is basically a blend of two types of logo above. 

When you look at the logo changes from era to era began ornate forms to simple shapes.Typography can be used as a measurement of time. The logo uses the letters in the early period who carved the letter type and serif, with the development time of the letters used more simple and sans-serif. 

Similarly, the representation of the logo image is also more simplified, such as a globe depicted by dots only, flying is no longer presented with a bird's wing, but described only with a curved triangular shape. A crown was originally described approaching reality and turns into a line of four dots with a beam above. 

Here we present some type of logo and logo type: 

1. Typografis
Only the logotype which the emphasis is more on the product name. Is a logo which only consists of a series of letters to mengvisualkan a name. The logo of this type gives a message directly to consumers. Example: Polytron, Sony, Sharp. 

Signature style that was originally derived from the name or signature of the person making a product. With the growing world of graphic visualization of the signature is shifted into names with special characters that became the logo Typografis Expressive, eg Etine Aigner, Yves Saint Laurent, Pierre Cardin. 

2. Geometric Typografis
That is the logo of a company or product with geometric typographic style, made up of geometric shapes such as ovals, circles or squares. An example is the Ford logo in the form of an ellipse. The advantages of this type of logo is in its concise and flexible. 

3. Initial Letter Logo
That is the logo that uses the initial letters (initials) of the product name or company and make it as a major element of the logo, such as the Universal Bank, Mega Bank. The logo of this type sometimes show the combined name of the owner of the company as a computer hardware manufacturer's logo Hewlett-Packard (HP). 

4. Pictorial Name Logo
Similarly with the logotype, which is the logo using the name as an important component.Overall, this logo has a very strong character and form of special such as Coca Cola, so the other name that was written with the form of typography as it will still be considered to emulate Coca Cola. 

5. Associative Logo
That is the logo that has a direct association with the product name or area of ​​activity. For example a company logo aircraft manufacturer Aerospatiale, Aerospatiale logo consists of sentences that form a spherical planet with a range of activities which clearly shows the flight, the Shell oil company logos that show images of the fossil shells as associate producer of oil, then 20th Century Fox logo, which depicts sparkling and magnificent world of film and much more. This type of logo has a strong attraction and easy to understand. 

6. Allusive Logo
The meaning of the logo is the logo that allusive metaphorical, such as Mercedes Benz logo consists of a triangular star shape which is a representation of a car steering system, or form A on the airlines Alitalia a dideformasikan of the tail shape that serves as a counterweight.Logo of this type have no direct relationship between the name with its logo so that the logo of this type is difficult to understand. 

7. Abstract Logo
What is meant by this type of logo is logos that can cause a wide impression, which is influenced by the power of understanding the consumer. This occurs because the visual form of the logo is very abstract. Some of them take some form of structural dikreasikan with varying optical effects (optical illusion). An example is the Citroen logo, logo type is very popular in America. 

In this abstract categories including expressive forms such as the logo of Bakrie Brothers.Abstract logo was first used by major Japanese companies, which companies are having success in western countries, so that a new idea for the development of the logo in the western world. The logo type is now standard contemporary logo design. The downside of this type of logo is an abstract form, so elusive consumers.


A.1 early history

Tracking the history of graphic design can be traced from the traces of human remains in the form of graphic symbols (sign & symbol) in the form of images (pictograf) or writing (ideograf).Image precedes text because the image is considered more direct and expressive, with a base of reference nature (flora, fauna, landscape and others). Writing / script is the result of image conversion, forms and rules governing the communication is more complex than the picture. No one knows for sure since when humans started using pictures as a medium of communication. Humans have used primitive drawing graffiti on the walls of the cave to hunt animals activities. Examples such as those found on cave walls of Lascaux, France.

Coat / script as a means of communication initiated by the Punesia (+ 1000 years BC), who was using a form of 22 letters. Then refined by the Greeks (+ 400 years BC), among others, by changing the 5 letters into vowels. The glory of the Roman empire in the first century who conquered Greece, bringing a new civilization in Western history with diadaptasikannya literary, artistic, religious, and the Latin alphabet that was brought from Greece. At first the Romans set from the Greek alphabet to 21 letters: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T , V, and X, then Y and Z are added in the Latin alphabet to accommodate a word derived from Greek. Three additional letters J, U and W included in medieval Latin alphabet bringing the total to 26.

When the college was first established in Europe in the early second millennium, the book becomes a very high demands. Print technology have not been found at that time, so that a book should be copied by hand. It is said to copying a book can take many months. In order to meet the demanding needs of the copying of books is increasing as well as to accelerate the work of the copyists (scribes), it gives birth Blackletter Script letters, lowercase form created with the form of a thin-thick and thin. Efficiency can be fulfilled through the form of this letter because ketipis-tebalannya can accelerate the work of writing. In addition, with the advantage of a beautiful and sleek, the letters can be written in greater numbers on one page.

A.2 Era Print

Graphic design evolved rapidly along with the historical development of human civilization when it was discovered writing and printing machines. In 1447, Johannes Gutenberg (1398-1468) discovered the print engine technology that can be driven with the pressure model resembles the design used in the Rhineland, Germany, to produce wine. This is a revolutionary development that allows mass production of books at low cost, which became part of the information explosion in the revival of Europe.

Guterberg in 1450 in collaboration with Johannes Fust merchants and financiers, assisted by Peter Schoffer he scored the "Latin Bible" or called "Guterberg Bible", "Mararin Bible" or "42 line Bible" which diselesaikanya in 1456. Gutenberg these findings have supported the development of German art of illustration in a book mainly for decoration. At that time also developed pattern letters (typography). Illustration of the time tended to realist and not a lot of icons. Artist Lucas Cranach magnitude among others with his work "Where of Babylon".

Johannes Gutenberg (1398-1468)

In the next development, Aloys Senefelder (1771-1834) discovered lithography printing techniques. Unlike the printing press that utilizes Guterberg high printing techniques,lithography printing techniques using a flat printing technique that utilizes the principle of mutualrepulsion between the water with oil. Lithography is the name of the master print using lithostone media. This technique allows for the depiction more freely in the form of blocks and largesizes, also allows for color separation. So this time supports the rapid development of posterart. This golden period disebu touted as "The Golden Age of the Poster".

Figures poster art techniques lithogafi (1836-1893), among others, Jules Cheret with his great work "Eldorado: Riang Dancer" (1898), "La Loie Fuller: Fuller Dancer" (1897), "QuinquinaDubonnet" (1896), "enu des Sirenes "(1899). Other luminaries such as Henri de ToulouseLautrec and Eugene Grasset.

A.3 Further Developments

The following are important events in the world that play a role in the history of graphic design.

1851, The Great Exhibition
Held in London's Hyde park between May and October 1851, when the industrial revolution.This major exhibition highlights and celebrates the cultural and industrial technology and designindustry. The exhibition was held in the building of the structure of cast-iron and glass, oftenreferred to as the Crystal Palace, designed by Joseph Paxton.

Book of the Great Exhibition of optical

Illustration Crystal Palace

1892, Aristide Bruant, Toulouse-Lautrec
Painters post-Impressionist and illustrator art nouveau French, Henri Toulouse-Lautrec depictsmany facets of Paris in the nineteenth century in posters and paintings that express a sympathy for the human race. Although lithography was found in Austria by Alois Senefelder in 1796,Toulouse-Lautrec help to achieve the smelting industry and the arts.

Poster Aristide Bruant

1910, Modernism
Modernism is formed by the urbanization and industrialization of Western society. A dogma isa breath of modern design is "Form Follow Function" which catapult by Louis Sullivan.Symbolkejayan strongest of modernism is the engine that is also interpreted as the future for his followers. Without decoration design more suited to the "machine language", so that the works of traditions that are ornamental and decorative considered incompatible with the "machineaesthetic".

1916, Dada
An artistic and literary movement (1916-1923) which developed following the First World Warand are looking to find a genuine reality to the elimination of traditional culture and aestheticforms. Dada bring new ideas, directions and ingredients, but with little uniformity. The principle is deliberate irrationality, anarchy and the cynical nature, and rejection of laws of beauty.

1916, De Stijl
The force comes from the Dutch De Stijl is an art and design movement that developed a magazine of the same name was found by Theo Van Doesburg. De Stijl using strongrectangular form, using basic colors and use the asymmetrical composition. The picture below is Red and Blue Chair designed by Gerrit Rietveld.

The Red and Blue Chair

1918, Constructivism
A modern art movement that began in Moscow in 1920, which is characterized by the use ofindustrial methods to create geometric objects. Russian Constructivism influence on modernoutlook through the use of sans-serif letters in red and black asymmetrical arranged in blocks.

Model of the Tatlin Tower, a monument to the Communist International.

1919, Bauhaus
Bauhaus opened in 1919 under the direction of renowned architect Walter Gropius. Until finallyto be closed in 1933, Bauhaus started a fresh approach to design follow Duni First War, with astyle that focused on function rather than decoration.

Bauhaus building

1928-1930, Gill Sans
Tipograper Eric Gill studied at the Edward Johnston Underground font type and refine into aGill Sans. Gill Sans is a sans serif typeface with classic proportions and graceful geometriccharacteristics that give a wide range of abilities (great versatility).

Photo of Eric Gill

1931, Harry Beck
Graphic designer Harry's Back (1903-1974) created a map of London Underground (LondonUnderground Map) in 1931. An abstract work which contains very little relationship to thephysical scale. Beck focused on the needs of users of how to get from one station to another station and where to change trains.

Harry Beck and his underground maps

1950s, International Style
International or Swiss style is based on the revolutionary principle of the 1920s such as De Stijl,Bauhaus and Neue Typography, and it became official in 1950. Grid, the principles of mathematics, a little decoration and a sans serif typeface typography rules as enhanced to further demonstrate the function of universal rather than personal expression.

The cover of the book from Taschen

1951, Helvetica
Created by Max Miedinger a designer from Switzerland, Helvetica is one of the most populartypes of letters and famous in the world. Clean-looking, with no stripes does not make sensebased on the letter Akzidenz-Grotesk. Initially called the Hass Grostesk, the name waschanged to Helvetica in 1960. Helvetica family has a thickness of 34 models and 51 modelshave Helvetica Neue.

Book cover Helvetica

1960s, Pop Art and psychedelia
Popular culture in the 1960s such as music, art, design and literature became more accessibleand reflect on everyday life. By deliberately and clearly, Pop Art evolved as a reaction againstabstract art. The picture below is a work of Milton Glaser poster featuring the silhouette ofMarcel Duchamp style combined with a circular calligraphy. In print more than 6 million copies.

Milton Glaser poster

1984, Emigre
American graphic design magazine, Emigre is the first publication to use a Macintoshcomputer, and affect the graphic designer to switch to desktop publishing (DTP). The magazine also acts as a forum for experimental typography.

The cover of Émigré Magazine


Human desire to create an image that lives and moves as pantara of their disclosure, an embodiment of the basic form of animation that life evolved. The word itself is actually animated adaptation of the word animation, which comes from the word to animate, in a general English-Indonesian dictionary meaning turn (Wojowasito 1997). In general the animation is an activity switch, moving inanimate objects. An inanimate object is given a boost of strength, spirit and emotions to be alive and moving, or just a memorable life. 

Actually, since ancient times, humans have tried to animated motion pictures of animals they are, as found by the archaeologist in northern Spain Lascaux cave, had lived two hundred thousand years more. They tried to catch the animals run fast motion, such as wild boar, bison or horses, he described with eight legs in different positions and stacked (Hallas and Manvell 1973). 

The ancient Egyptians turned their image with the order of pictures of the wrestlers who are struggling, as wall decorations. Created circa 2000 BC (Thomas 1958). Ancient Japanese painting shows a plot of the living, by deploying coils painting, made in the Heian period (794-1192) (Americana encyclopedias volume 19, 1976). Then came the toy called Thaumatrope around the 19th century in Europe, a sheet of thick cardboard discs, a picture of birds in a cage, which both sides left a rope tied to his right, when twisted by hand will give the bird moving images santir (Laybourne 1978). 

Until the 1880s, Jean Marey portrait using a continuous record streak of movement of birds flying, human activities and other animals. A tool that became the forerunner of film cameras is a growing life to date. And in 1892, Emile Reynauld developed a toy called Praxinoscope ayng animated images, a series of hundreds of animated images are rotated and projected on a mirror into a motion movie, a tool precursor in cinema projector (Laybourne 1978). 

Both novice filmmaker cinema, came from France, it is considered as the initial opening of the development of animated film techniques (AmericanavoLV1 Encyclopedia, 1976). Ten years later after the movie of life improved greatly in his late 19th century. In 1908, Emile Cohl beginners of French make a simple animated film of a matchstick figure. The series of pictures blabar black (black line) made on a white sheet, was photographed with the film negative so that the visible figure and background to white to black. 

While in the United States Winsor McCay animated film "Gertie the Dinosaur" in 1909. Blabar figures drawn in black with a white background. Following in the following years the American animator animated films began developing the technique around 1913 to the early 1920s.Max Fleischer to develop "Ko Ko The Clown" and Pat Sullivan to make "Felix The Cat". The series of drawings made as simple as possible, where the figure is drawn blabar unite black or black shadow against a background of basic blabar black or made otherwise. McCay create a formula film with the computation time, 16 times per second in motion pictures. 

Fleischer and Sullivan have made use of animation techniques sell, that is transparent sheets of celluloid material (Celluloid) called "cell". Another beginner in Germany, Lotte Reineger, in 1919, developing animated films shadows, and Bertosch of France, in the 1930 animated film making experimental pieces with figures derived from pieces of wood. George Pal started using the dolls as a figure in a short animated film, in 1934 in the Netherlands. And Alexsander Ptushko of Russian dolls length animated film "The New Gulliver" in 1935. 

In 1935 Len Lye from Canada, started drawing directly on film after entering the renewal of the color film through the film "Color of Box". The development of the most important animated film technique, which is around the 1930's. Where the animated film appears sound pioneered by Walt Disney of the United States, through the movie "Mickey Mouse", "Donald Duck" and "Silly Symphony" made during 1928 to 1940. 

In 1931 Disney animated film in the first color film "Flowers and Trees". And the length of the first animated cartoon movie made Disney in 1938, the film "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs". Thus the origin of the development of film animation techniques that continue to evolve in style and characteristic of each manufacturer in various countries in Europe, in America and spread through countries in Asia.Especially in Japan, a cartoon developed rapidly there, until this year in the decade to master cartoon animated film market here with distinctive characteristics and style.